The Characteristics of Bird Feathers and Colors

The Characteristics of Bird Feathers and Colors
The color of the feathers of male and female birds of a number of species are identical but can still be distinguished because the majority of the colors of the feathers of male birds are brighter, especially feathers during mating.
However, in certain duck breeds, after the nesting season, the result of changing feathers after mating, the color of the feathers fades to reddish gray and the feathers fall off so that they cannot temporarily fly. Therefore, the male duck during this period is not attractive.

Fur function
Can prevent loss of body heat by wagging their feathers in cold weather.
Meanwhile, during hot weather, birds maintain the coolness of the body by smoothing their feathers.
Body cover.
The feathers on the bottom and the feathers that lie along the wings and tail have different shapes. Large tail feathers are used for driving and braking.
To beautify the body.
Plumae functions so that it can fly.
Plamulae functions as an insulator.
Filoplumae Functioning as a sensor.
Lifting the body of a bird in the air.
Withstand heat so the bird's body can maintain its body heat.
To protect the skin from insects.
To warm the eggs when incubating.

Structure of Animal Aves
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a) Skeletal structure
Birds have a bone structure that adapts to flight. Bone Adaptation
birds are as follows:

Birds have lighter beaks than jaws and teeth in mammals.
Birds have flat and broad sternum (breastbone), useful as a place for attachment of broad flying muscles.
The bones of birds are hollow and lightweight. They are very strong because they have crossed structures.
Wings are composed of fewer bones than bones on human hands. This serves to reduce weight, especially when birds fly.
The spine joins to give a solid frame shape, especially when flapping wings while flying.
Birds also have typical bones that are suitable for flight. The front members change function into wings. Bones and chests grow and flatten as the attachment of muscles and wings. This allows the bird to fly.

b) Order function
The following is the skeletal function of the turtledove:
Skull: Protect the brain and head contents
Neckbone: To connect to the cranium.
Arm bone: To move the wing.
Hasta bones of the arm. : The connecting wing bone
Arm bone gather. : The connecting wing bone
Choracoid: Connecting the breastbone.
Sternum: The attaching place of otoT to fly.
Ribs: Bones that protect the bowels.
Pelvis: Connecting coccyx.
Coccyx: A connecting bone with the cloaca.
Dry bones: Connections to the thigh bone kebetis.
Femur: For joints.

Digestive tract
digestive gland
The digestive organs in birds are divided into the digestive tract and digestive glands. Bird food varies in the form of grains, small animals and fruits. The digestive tract in birds consists of:
Bill: is a modification of teeth, which functions to take food
Oral cavity: consists of the upper jaw which is the link between the oral cavity and the horn.
Pharynx: in the form of a short channel.
Esophagus: in birds there is a widening in this section called cache, acting as a storage place for food that can be filled quickly.

The hull consists of:
Proventriculus (stomach glands): many produce digestive enzymes, thin muscular walls.
Ventriculus (stomach chewing / empedal): thick-walled muscles
In grain eaters there is gravel and sand that is ingested with food that is useful for digestion and is referred to as "hen's teeth".

consists of small intestine and thick intestine which empties into the cloaca.
The small intestine in birds consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The digestive glands of birds include: liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
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