Bird Animal Reproduction System

Bird Animal Reproduction System
A bird excretion tool is a pair of metanerfous kidneys. The kidney is connected by the ureter to the cloaca because the bird does not have a urinary vesicle. More than a mammal kidney tube of a mammal because the speed of bird metabolism is very high. Every 1ml cubic tissue of the renal cortex of birds contains 100 to 500 of these kidney tubes forming a small henle arch.
Water in the body is stored through tubules reabsorption. In the cloaca water reabsorption also occurs which increases the amount of water in the body. Nitrogen waste is discarded as uric acid released through the cloaca as white crystals mixed with feces.
Especially in seabirds, for example gulls, in addition to excreting uric acid also salt. This is because seabirds drink salt water and eat sea fish that contain salt. Seabirds have salt excretion glands above the eyes. The salt solution flows through the nasal cavity then exits through the outer nares and finally the salt comes out through the end of the beak.

The nervous system in birds is similar to the nervous system in humans and mammals. All nerve activities are regulated by the central nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain and spinal cord. Bird brain also consists of four parts, the cerebrum, midbrain, cerebellum and advanced marrow.
In addition to the cerebellum, the cerebrum in birds can also grow well. Big brains of birds are different from big brains in humans. The surface of the cerebrum in birds does not multiply, so the number of neurons in birds develops by forming two bubbles. This development is related to the function of vision.
The cerebellum of birds has folds that extend the surface so that it can accommodate a large number of neurons. The development of the cerebellum is useful for regulating bird balance when flying.
In the retina of the bird's eye there are two kinds of sensory cells receiving light stimuli, namely stem cells and cone cells. Stem cells are sensitive to light stimuli while cone cells are sensitive to strong light. Night birds have many retinas that contain stem cells. Day birds have lots of cone cells. Eye lenses in birds have good accommodation.
Bird groups are oviparous animals. Although the group of birds do not have external genitals, fertilization still occurs in the body. This is done by attaching cloaca to each other.

a. Male Genital System.
The testes are a pair, oval or round in shape, the surface is slippery, located next to the ventral lobe of the penis most cranial. In mating season, the size gets bigger. This is where spermatozoa are made and stored.
Reproductive tract. Mesonephrus tubules form afferent ducts and epididymis. The wolf ducts curl and form the duct deferens. In small birds, the very long distal ductal distal ducts form a spindle called a glomere.
Near the posterior glomere of the afferent duct dilates to form the ampulla duct which empties into the cloaca as the ejaculatory duct. The efferent duct is associated with a small epididymis and then towards the deferent duct. Deferent duct has nothing to do with the ureter when entering the cloaca.

b. Female Genital System.
Ovary In addition to eagles, the ovaries that develop only the left, and are located in the dorsal abdominal cavity.
Reproductive tract, oviducts that develop only on the left, long, curled, attached to the body wall by mesosilfing and divided into sections; the anterior part is the infundibulum which has an open part that leads to the cavity of the selom as an ostium surrounded by fimbre-fimbre.
On the posterior is the magnum which will secrete albumin, then the istmus
secrete inner and outer egg cells. Uterus or shell gland to produce lime shells.

c. Festilization Process
In female birds there is only one ovary, the left ovary. The right ovary does not grow perfectly and remains small, called a rudimentary.
The ovary is attached by an ovum recipient funnel followed by the oviduct. The tip of the oviduct enlarges to become a uterus which empties into the cloaca. In male birds there is a pair of testicles which coincide with the ureter and empties into the cloaca.
Fertilization will take place in the tip of the oviduct when sperm enters the oviduct. The fertilized ovum will move close to the cloaca. On the way to the cloaca in the oviduct, the fertilized ovum will be surrounded by shell material in the form of lime.

Functioning as a Breathing Apparatus

Functioning as a Breathing Apparatus
Besides functioning as a breathing apparatus when flying, pneumatic sac also helps enlarge the siring chamber so that it can amplify the sound, prevent loss of body heat that is too high, enveloping internal devices to prevent coldness, and changing body density in swimmers.
Changes in density by increasing or decreasing air pockets. Bird breathing is done in two kinds, namely on flying and not flying. When not flying, breathing occurs due to the movement of the sternum so that the ribs move forward and downward. As a result, the chest cavity enlarges and the lungs expand.
The expansion of the lungs causes air to enter (inspiration). In contrast to the shrinking of the chest cavity, the lungs will deflate so that the air from the air sacs returns to the lungs. So, fresh air flows through the parabronkus at the time of inspiration and expiration so that the lung function of birds is more efficient than the lungs of mammals.

When flying, active movement of the chest cavity cannot take place because the sternum and ribcage are a strong attachment base for the flight muscles. As a result, inspiration and expiration are carried out by the air sacs under the armpit, the way is by moving the wings up and down. This motion can compress and loosen the air sac so that there is an exchange of air in the lungs.
The higher the flight, the bird must move its wings faster to get more oxygen. The frequency of breathing birds is approximately 25 times per minute, whereas in humans it is only 15-20 times per minute.
To learn about blood circulation in aves, we take the example of bird blood circulation. The blood circulation of birds is composed by the heart as the center of blood circulation, and blood vessels. Blood in birds is composed of oval and nucleated erythrocytes.
The heart of the bird is cone-shaped and encased in the pericardial membrane. The heart consists of two thin-walled porches and two billicles with thicker walls.
Blood vessels are divided into arteries and veins. There are three arteries that come out of the left ventricle, namely two anonymous arteries which branch off into arteries that give blood to the head, flight muscles, and front members; and an aorta which is a remnant of the aortic arch to the right (the aortic arch to the left reduces).
These arteries then circle the right bronchus and turn towards the tail into the dorsal aorta (back artery). There are only one artery coming out of the right ventricle, the pulmonary artery (pulmonary artery), which then branches into the left and right lungs.
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Veins or veins are distinguished on:
Upper body back vessels (superior vena cava); This vein carries blood from the head, front members, and members of the pectoralis muscles to the heart.
Lower body veins (inferior vena cava); carry blood from the lower part of the body to the heart.
The return vessels come from the right lung and the left lung and carry blood to the left atrium of the heart.

Eggs can hatch when incubated by the mother. The mother's body temperature will help the growth of the embryo into a baby bird. Chicks hatch by breaking egg shells using their beaks. The newly hatched chicks are still blindfolded and cannot feed themselves, and need to be raised in nests.

Function of egg parts aves:
Embryonic point -> the part that will develop into an embryo
Egg yolk -> embryo food reserves
Kalaza -> keep the embryo shaking
Egg white -> keep the embryo from shaking
Air cavity -> oxygen reserves for the embryo
Amnion -> Amnion is a kind of membrane that protects an embryo in an egg. Those who have amniotic eggs are reptiles, poultry, and mammals so these three classes are called "amniota". Egg amnion is not found in fish and amphibia, so these two classes are called "anamniota".

Bird Digestive System

Bird Digestive System
In the mouth there is a very strong beak and serves to take food. Food taken by the beak then enters the oral cavity and then into the esophagus.

The bottom of the esophagus enlarges in the form of a bag called a cache. Then it enters the stomach gland. Called the stomach gland because the walls contain glands that produce gastric sap that functions to digest food chemically.
Then eat into the chewing stomach. Called the chewing stomach because the walls contain strong muscles that are useful for destroying food. In the liver, empedals often have small stones or sand to help digest food mechanically. Then, food enters the small intestine.
Enzymes produced by the pancreas and bile flow into the small intestine. The digestive results in the form of food juices are absorbed by the capillaries of blood in the small intestinal wall. food. The rest of the food is pushed into the large intestine and then into the intestinal shaft (rectum) and finally excreted through the cloaca.

Bird digestion
Poultry in this case take the example of birds, birds have breathing apparatus (pulmo). Pulmo size is relatively small compared to its body size. Bird lungs are formed for primary bronchi, secondary bronchi and broccoli vessels.
The primary bronchi are associated with mesobronchi which is the largest bronchioles. Mesobronkus branched into two sets of anterior and posterior secondary bronchi called ventrobroncus and dorsobronchus. Ventrobronkus and dorsobronkus are connected by parabronkus.
Bird lungs have around 10000 pieces. Parabronchi whose diameter is approximately 0.5mm. a pair of lungs in a bird attached to the inner chest wall. The lungs of the bird have an expansion called the pneumatic sac air sac which fills the collarbone area of the upper chest, lower chest, abdomen area, humerus bone area, and neck area.

Respiratory equipment consisting of:
Pressure gaps in the pharynx, associated with the trachea.
The trachea is a ring with thickening of the ring-shaped cartilage arranged along the trachea.

Siring (sound instrument), located at the bottom of the trachea. In the siring there is a sternotracheal muscle that connects the breastbone and trachea, and functions to make a sound. Besides that, the siringialis muscles can also connect the siring with the inner tracheal wall.
In the siring cavity there are membranes that vibrate easily.
The sound membrane vibrations depend on the size of the siring room which is governed by the sternotracheal and siringialis muscles.
Tracheal bifurcation, the tracheal branching into two right and left bronchi.
Bronchus (tracheal branch), located between the siring and the lungs.
Lungs with membrane covering the lungs called pleura.
Birds have breathing apparatus called air cavities associated with the lungs. The function of the air coffers is to help with breathing and to help enlarge the siring cavity so that it can amplify the sound. The process of breathing in birds occurs as follows. If the ribcage muscles contract, the ribcage moves forward and the sternum moves downward.

The chest cavity becomes large and the pressure decreases. This causes air to enter the lungs and then into the air coffers. When the ribs relax, the damaged bone moves backward and the sternum moves upward. The chest cavity shrinks and the pressure becomes large, resulting in air coming out of the lungs.
Likewise the air from the coffs of air comes out through the lungs. Intake of oxygen by the lungs occurs at the time of inspiration and expiration. Gas exchange only occurs in the lungs. For more details, below will be explained how the respiratory mechanism in birds.
Gas exchange occurs in the lungs, precisely in the parabronchi which contains many blood vessels. Avian lungs are associated with pneumatic sacs by recurrent bronchial mediators.

The Characteristics of Bird Feathers and Colors

The Characteristics of Bird Feathers and Colors
The color of the feathers of male and female birds of a number of species are identical but can still be distinguished because the majority of the colors of the feathers of male birds are brighter, especially feathers during mating.
However, in certain duck breeds, after the nesting season, the result of changing feathers after mating, the color of the feathers fades to reddish gray and the feathers fall off so that they cannot temporarily fly. Therefore, the male duck during this period is not attractive.

Fur function
Can prevent loss of body heat by wagging their feathers in cold weather.
Meanwhile, during hot weather, birds maintain the coolness of the body by smoothing their feathers.
Body cover.
The feathers on the bottom and the feathers that lie along the wings and tail have different shapes. Large tail feathers are used for driving and braking.
To beautify the body.
Plumae functions so that it can fly.
Plamulae functions as an insulator.
Filoplumae Functioning as a sensor.
Lifting the body of a bird in the air.
Withstand heat so the bird's body can maintain its body heat.
To protect the skin from insects.
To warm the eggs when incubating.

Structure of Animal Aves
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a) Skeletal structure
Birds have a bone structure that adapts to flight. Bone Adaptation
birds are as follows:

Birds have lighter beaks than jaws and teeth in mammals.
Birds have flat and broad sternum (breastbone), useful as a place for attachment of broad flying muscles.
The bones of birds are hollow and lightweight. They are very strong because they have crossed structures.
Wings are composed of fewer bones than bones on human hands. This serves to reduce weight, especially when birds fly.
The spine joins to give a solid frame shape, especially when flapping wings while flying.
Birds also have typical bones that are suitable for flight. The front members change function into wings. Bones and chests grow and flatten as the attachment of muscles and wings. This allows the bird to fly.

b) Order function
The following is the skeletal function of the turtledove:
Skull: Protect the brain and head contents
Neckbone: To connect to the cranium.
Arm bone: To move the wing.
Hasta bones of the arm. : The connecting wing bone
Arm bone gather. : The connecting wing bone
Choracoid: Connecting the breastbone.
Sternum: The attaching place of otoT to fly.
Ribs: Bones that protect the bowels.
Pelvis: Connecting coccyx.
Coccyx: A connecting bone with the cloaca.
Dry bones: Connections to the thigh bone kebetis.
Femur: For joints.

Digestive tract
digestive gland
The digestive organs in birds are divided into the digestive tract and digestive glands. Bird food varies in the form of grains, small animals and fruits. The digestive tract in birds consists of:
Bill: is a modification of teeth, which functions to take food
Oral cavity: consists of the upper jaw which is the link between the oral cavity and the horn.
Pharynx: in the form of a short channel.
Esophagus: in birds there is a widening in this section called cache, acting as a storage place for food that can be filled quickly.

The hull consists of:
Proventriculus (stomach glands): many produce digestive enzymes, thin muscular walls.
Ventriculus (stomach chewing / empedal): thick-walled muscles
In grain eaters there is gravel and sand that is ingested with food that is useful for digestion and is referred to as "hen's teeth".

consists of small intestine and thick intestine which empties into the cloaca.
The small intestine in birds consists of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum.
The digestive glands of birds include: liver, gallbladder, and pancreas.
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Feather Arrangement

Feather Arrangement
The feathers of birds are actually not evenly distributed, but are designed in limited fields called pterilae and there are small areas that are not overgrown with feathers called apteriles. Exceptions to penguins and kiwi birds whose feathers cover most of his body. Bird feathers can be named according to their fields, namely:
capital tract, which is fur that covers the top, sides and back of the head and continues to the next pterilae.
Spinal tract, fur that extends from the top of the neck to the back and continues to the base of the tail and can continue or separate in the middle.
Ventral tract, starts between the lower jaw branches and extends down to the ventral side of the neck. It usually divides into two lateral planes passing along the sides of the body and ending around the anus.
The apterilae of the lower abdomen and abdomen of some birds, rich in blood vessels during nesting and brood patches. At the time of brooding the fur on the brood patch will fall out and thin skin.

Humeral tract is a pair of pterilae that are parallel like a narrow band that extends backward on the shoulder side.
Caudal tracts include retrices, tail feathers, usually long and strong.
Alar tract including various pterilae which is located on the wing. Thumb is the rest of the second finger. While the feathers that cover the upper and lower surface of the wing are called the covert and the feathers on the axial wing are called axillary.
Femoral tract, hair that extends along the outer surface of the thigh near the knee joint to the body.
Crural tract, feathers that make up the rest of the other feather fields in the legs (Sukiya, 2003).

Substitution of Fur
Bird feathers are formed from non-living structures so they are easily wrinkled due to oxidation and friction. Old feathers will periodically come off and be replaced by new feathers. The release and replacement of these feathers is called molting. Substitution of hair occurs at certain times of the year and completed in one period (for several weeks).

Generally birds change their feathers once a year, but female hummingbirds experience feather changes once in two years. Feather replacement usually occurs before or after breeding. But there are also those who have partial hair changes due to certain reasons. Substitution of bird feathers is influenced by many factors, including physiological factors namely the presence of the hormone thyroxine.
The perfect feathers of every bird species from hatch to adult vary. There are several species of birds which hatch bare / don't have feathers. At the time of hatching feathers is called Christmas plumage.

Most bird species have varying amounts of feathers when hatching, only a few feathers in altrical species (for example pigeons) or whole bodies covered in feathers in young precocial birds (eg chickens). When you hatch, the hair will fall out and be replaced with a new one, as follows:
Juvenalplumage (plumage), more substantial than Christmas plumage. Passerines only lasted a few weeks ago and fell first winter plumage feathers.
First winter plumage (feathers when one year old), obtained in late summer or autumn and lasts for 12 months, depending on the species.
First nuptial plumage (first mating feathers), the first breeding feathers that will fall out as a result of hair replacement after the first mating period.
Second winter plumage (second year fur), can be distinguished from adult fur in winter except for species that obtain adult fur in the first year or more than two years. This fur will be replaced by the second mating feather the following spring.

Based on the Anatomical Arrangement of Feathers

Based on the Anatomical Arrangement of Feathers
Based on the anatomical arrangement of feathers are divided into:
Filoplumae, hairs like small hairs spread throughout the body. The ends are short and smooth branches. If observed closely it will appear to consist of a slender shaft and several barbulae at the top.
Plumulae, shaped almost the same shape as filoplumae with different details.
Plumae, the perfect feather.
Barbulae, The tip and the lower side of each barbulae have small filaments called barbicels which help to hold the barbules together.

The composition of the plumae consists of:
Shaft, which is the main shaft of the feather.
Calamus, which is the base of the hair shaft.
Rachis, namely continued calamus which is the axis of the feather that is not hollow in it. Rachis is filled with marrow and has tissue.
Vexillum, which is a flag composed of barbae which are lateral branches of the rachis.

Bird feathers
The hole at the base of the calamus is called the inferior umbilicus, while the hole at the end of the calamus is called the superior umbilicus. Bird feathers when hatched are called neossoptile, whereas as adults they are called teleoptile.

According to its location, feather aves can be divided into:
Tectrices, feathers that cover the body.
Rectrices, feathers at the base of the tail, vexilum are symmetrical and function as a rudder.
Remiges, feathers on the wings which are subdivided into:
remixes primaries which are digitally attached to the digital and metacarpally to the metacarpalia.
Secundarient remiges that attach cubital to the radial ulna.
The deepest tertiary remiges appear as secondary continuation of the elbow area.
Parapterum, fur that covers the shoulder area.
Ala spuria, small hairs attached to the thumb (Jasin, 1984).

Fur Color
Fur color is produced by pigment grains, by diffraction and reflection of light by the structure of the feathers or by the pigment and structure of the feathers. The main pigments that cause hair color are melanin and carotenoids.
Carotenoids are often called lipochromes which are not soluble in water but are soluble in methanol, ether or carbon disulfide. Carotenoids are divided into 2, namely zooeritrin (animal red) and zoosantin (animal yellow). Melanin pigment dissolved in acid. Eumelanin grains vary from black to dark brown. Feomelanin is almost colorless to reddish brown.
Round melanin beads near the tips of the outer feathers give Newton's ring effect and cause colorful changes in the feathers. Green, blue and violet colors are not produced by pigments but depend on the structure of the fur.
For example bluebird birds whose feathers are blue but do not contain blue pigments. This color is caused by the yellow pigment which absorbs the entire spectrum of light and is then reflected back. Banana-eating tropical birds have a copper pigment in the form of turacoverdin which is able to produce a dark red color produced by turacin (Sukiya 2003).
One of these banana-eating species is Tauraco corythaix, which has a bright red egg yolk caused by carotenoids and 60% of the red pigment called astasantin.
Although the color of bird feathers is genetic, it can change due to internal and external factors. Caged birds for a long time can also change the color of their feathers. This can be caused by the food.
External factors that can affect discoloration are oxidation and friction / abrasion. Color caused by carotene can fade due to sunlight.
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Internal factors that affect the color of hair are hormones. Bird species have a color dimorphism in sex. Regulation of the hormone estrogen plays a role in many male birds, that is before the beginning of the turn of the feathers. Whereas in females, it is possible to be induced by the feathers of male birds with testosterone regulation.

Understanding Aves (Birds)

Understanding Aves (Birds)
Birds are members of vertebrate animals that have feathers and wings. The oldest bird fossil found in Germany and known as Archeopteryx.
The types of birds are so varied, ranging from tiny hummingbirds to ostriches, which are taller than people. It is estimated that there are around 8,800 - 10,200 bird species worldwide; around 1,500 of them are found in Indonesia. These various bird species are scientifically classified into the Aves class.
Aves is a class of its own in the kingdom animalia, aves or birds have a common characteristic that is feathered and most of them can fly.
Aves class is the only group of animals that have fur, (make no mistake haired mammals, not hairy). This is unique to the group of animals. Following is a brief description of class aves,
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Evolution and Morphology of Aves
Although the bird is warm-blooded, it is closely related to reptiles. Together with its closest relatives, the Crocodylidae family, aka crocodiles, birds form a group of animals called Archosauria.
It is thought that birds developed from a type of reptile in the past, which shortened their front claws and grew special feathers on their bodies. At first, the primitive wing which was the development of the front claw could not yet be used to really fly, and only helped it to be able to float from an altitude to a lower place.

Today's birds have developed in such a way that they are specialized for long distances, with the exception of some primitive species. Its feathers, especially on the wings, have grown wider, lighter, stronger and tightly arranged. These feathers are also arranged so that they are able to resist water, and keep the bird's body warm in the cold.
The bones become lighter because of the air cavities in it, but still strong support the body. His breastbone grew and flattened, as a place to attach strong flying muscles. His teeth disappeared, replaced by a mild beak of horny substance.
All of that makes birds easier and more flying, and able to visit various habitats on earth. Hundreds of species of birds can be found in tropical forests, they inhabit these forests from the coast to the mountain peaks.

Birds are also found in swamps, grasslands, coastal areas, the middle of the ocean, rock caves, urban areas, and polar regions. Each type of adapt to the environment and its main food.
Then known various types of birds with different colors and shapes. There are bright bright colors or jet black, green leaves, dark brown or dotted for disguise, and others.
Some have strong beaks for tearing flesh, scraping hard fruit seeds, pointy to spear fish, flat to filter mud, wide to catch flying insects, or long to suck nectar. Some have sharp claws to grip prey, tree climbing claws, earth digging and litter claws, webbed claws for swimming, strong claws for running and tearing the enemy's stomach.
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Feather Structure
Fur is a characteristic class of aves that is not possessed by other vertebrates. Almost the entire body is covered with feathers, which are phylogenetically derived from the body's epidermal, which in reptiles are similar to scales.
Embryologically the hairs of the aves originate from dermal papules which then stick out covering the epidermis. The base of the feathers curved inward at the edges to form follicles, which are the fur holes in the skin.
The outer epidermal membrane of the horn hair buds and form a smooth wrapper, while the epidermis forms the constituent layer of fur ribs. ).