Bird Digestive System

Bird Digestive System
In the mouth there is a very strong beak and serves to take food. Food taken by the beak then enters the oral cavity and then into the esophagus.

The bottom of the esophagus enlarges in the form of a bag called a cache. Then it enters the stomach gland. Called the stomach gland because the walls contain glands that produce gastric sap that functions to digest food chemically.
Then eat into the chewing stomach. Called the chewing stomach because the walls contain strong muscles that are useful for destroying food. In the liver, empedals often have small stones or sand to help digest food mechanically. Then, food enters the small intestine.
Enzymes produced by the pancreas and bile flow into the small intestine. The digestive results in the form of food juices are absorbed by the capillaries of blood in the small intestinal wall. food. The rest of the food is pushed into the large intestine and then into the intestinal shaft (rectum) and finally excreted through the cloaca.

Bird digestion
Poultry in this case take the example of birds, birds have breathing apparatus (pulmo). Pulmo size is relatively small compared to its body size. Bird lungs are formed for primary bronchi, secondary bronchi and broccoli vessels.
The primary bronchi are associated with mesobronchi which is the largest bronchioles. Mesobronkus branched into two sets of anterior and posterior secondary bronchi called ventrobroncus and dorsobronchus. Ventrobronkus and dorsobronkus are connected by parabronkus.
Bird lungs have around 10000 pieces. Parabronchi whose diameter is approximately 0.5mm. a pair of lungs in a bird attached to the inner chest wall. The lungs of the bird have an expansion called the pneumatic sac air sac which fills the collarbone area of the upper chest, lower chest, abdomen area, humerus bone area, and neck area.

Respiratory equipment consisting of:
Pressure gaps in the pharynx, associated with the trachea.
The trachea is a ring with thickening of the ring-shaped cartilage arranged along the trachea.

Siring (sound instrument), located at the bottom of the trachea. In the siring there is a sternotracheal muscle that connects the breastbone and trachea, and functions to make a sound. Besides that, the siringialis muscles can also connect the siring with the inner tracheal wall.
In the siring cavity there are membranes that vibrate easily.
The sound membrane vibrations depend on the size of the siring room which is governed by the sternotracheal and siringialis muscles.
Tracheal bifurcation, the tracheal branching into two right and left bronchi.
Bronchus (tracheal branch), located between the siring and the lungs.
Lungs with membrane covering the lungs called pleura.
Birds have breathing apparatus called air cavities associated with the lungs. The function of the air coffers is to help with breathing and to help enlarge the siring cavity so that it can amplify the sound. The process of breathing in birds occurs as follows. If the ribcage muscles contract, the ribcage moves forward and the sternum moves downward.

The chest cavity becomes large and the pressure decreases. This causes air to enter the lungs and then into the air coffers. When the ribs relax, the damaged bone moves backward and the sternum moves upward. The chest cavity shrinks and the pressure becomes large, resulting in air coming out of the lungs.
Likewise the air from the coffs of air comes out through the lungs. Intake of oxygen by the lungs occurs at the time of inspiration and expiration. Gas exchange only occurs in the lungs. For more details, below will be explained how the respiratory mechanism in birds.
Gas exchange occurs in the lungs, precisely in the parabronchi which contains many blood vessels. Avian lungs are associated with pneumatic sacs by recurrent bronchial mediators.