The Endodermis for Formation of Branch Roots

The Endodermis for Formation of Branch Roots
To breathe
If observed at the tip of the young roots, there are four growth areas (primary), which are as follows.
a. Root hoods (kaliptra), root hoods at the root end protect the root meristem from mechanical damage to all plant roots except parasitic plant roots and roots that form mycorrhizae.
b. Cleavage area
c. Cell division area (elongation area)
d. Regional cell differentiation
Cross section of young roots from the outside in is.
Epidermis: The cell wall is thin, has no intercellular space. Its semipermiable, there are root hairs whose function is to suck water and mineral salts from the soil, and expand the root surface.
Cortex: Thin walls, lots of space between cells. Its function is to exchange substances and store starch.
Endodermis: Is a separator between cortex and stele. Its function is to regulate the entry of water and substances that lie in the central cylinder.

Composed of parenchyma tissue, the outer layer is called perisicles or pericambium. Consists of:
Perisicles = pericambium. Is a network that is located parallel to the endodermis for the formation of branch roots
Vascular cambium. Serves to form secondary phloem and xylem, at the beginning it is star-shaped (radial) but eventually rounded
Xylem / bundle of wooden vessels
the cells die, arranged longitudinally, the fiber disappears
serves to transport food from roots to leaves
consists of tracheal and trachea elements

Floem, consisting of:
vein filter
companion cells that produce the traulin hormone
The filling tissue (parenchyma) functions into an empty part.

Stem function:
As a place for food reserves, for example in sugar cane
Where leaves and roots grow
To transport nutrients from the roots of the leaves or vice versa
To uphold plants
To breathe
On the stem there are three main areas namely the epidermis, cortex, and central cylinder. Dicotyledonous stems are cambium so that they can grow enlarged, have endodermis and pericicles, bind open collateral vessels, and orderly transport vessels in circles. Monocotyledonous stems do not berkambium, so they do not grow enlarged, have endodermis and perisicles. Collateral bundles are closed and transport bundles appear to be scattered.

The leaf is a place of photosynthesis, the thinner the surface of the leaf, the faster the photosynthesis occurs.
Leaf function:
For photosynthesis and breathing
Expenditures for evaporation and mutation
A place for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide gases. This happens because of stomata and emiserium (a tool for removing water from plants). In other plants the leaves function as vegetative propagation tools.

Leaves making tissue:
a. Epidermis
The leaf epidermis consists of cells with thick walls coated with cuticles and sometimes non-lignin, not chlorophyll, present on the lower and upper surfaces and function as protectors.
b. Parenchyma / mesophyll
In monocotyledon leaves the plants have not been differentiated, whereas in dicotyledon leaves have been differentiated into a network of poles and fences (palisades) that are on the outside and those inside the spongy tissue (rocky corals) on the inside.
c. Carrier The leaf transport network is the final and initial part of the phloem.
Leaves (complete leaf morphology), namely:
Leaf midrib (upih leaf / vaginula)
Petiole (ptiolus)
Leaf blade (lamina)
Examples of bananas, palms, areca nut The leaves are incomplete, for example on
Biduri (Calotropis gigantea) has only a leaf blade
Acacia (Acasia auruculiformis-Acunn), the leaves are merupakam
widening of the stalk. Difference in leaves in dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous leaves is monocotyledonous plants have parallel or curved leaf bones, whereas in dicotyledonous plants the bones of the leaf pinnate or pinch.

Flowers are plant organs that appear only at certain times, that is, if the plant has reached a certain age.
The structure of interest consists of:
calyx, which protects the flower buds
petal (corola) which attracts the attention of insects
stamens (stamen), which produces pollen
pistil (pistilum), which is a female gamete producer