Factors Affecting Distribution

Factors Affecting Distribution
Factors that influence the pattern of distribution of living things in time

Biotic Factors
Is a factor of life, or related to life. Which includes biotics, namely humans, animals (fauna), plants (flora), fungi, protists and bacteria.
Living things such as humans, animals and plants have a considerable influence on the distribution of plants. Especially humans with the knowledge and technology they have can spread plants quickly and easily. Urban forest is a type of forest that is more influenced by biotic factors, especially humans. Humans are also able to influence the life of fauna in a place by protecting or hunting animals. This shows that human factors affect the life of flora and fauna in this world.
For example: forest areas are converted to agriculture, plantations or housing areas by logging, reforestation, or fertilizing. Besides animal factors also have a role in the spread of flora plants. The role of plants is to fertilize the soil. Fertile soil allows the development of plant life and also influences the fauna life.
animals also have a role in the spread of flora plants. for example: insects in the process of pollination, bats, birds, squirrels help in spreading plant seeds. The role of plants is to fertilize the soil. Fertile soil allows the development of plant life and also influences the fauna life.

Abiotic Factors
Is, components that are not alive or inanimate objects. Abiotic components include, soil, rock and climate, rain, temperature, humidity, wind, and sun. Abiotics do not have characteristics as biotic factors, such as breathing, growing, multiplying, eating and drinking, excreting and adapting to their environment. Abiotic factors are the driving factors for biotics so biotics can live and do activities.
Geological History Factors

In the early 1960s, evidence of continental drift was found. The continents that were joined in Pangea began to separate gradually. The opening of the South Atlantic Sea began about 125-130 million years ago, so that Africa and South America were united directly. However, South America has also moved slowly to Western America and the two are connected by the Panama isthmus.
This happened about 3.6 million years ago. When Panama's "bridge" was fully formed, several animals and plants from South America including Oposum and Armadillo migrated to West America. At the same time some animals and plants from West America such as oak, deer, and bears migrated to South America. So changes in position both large and small have a big influence on the distribution patterns of organisms, as we have seen today. Other examples are birds that cannot fly, for example the ostrices, rhea, emu, cassowary and kiwi appear to have branching divergences very early in the evolutionary journey of all other bird groups. As a result there was a subspecies earlier.

Physical Inhibiting Factors
Physical inhibiting factors are also called geographic barriers or barriers (geographic isolation) such as land (land barrier), water (water barrier), and ground leveling (isthmus). Examples are: high mountains, deserts, rivers or oceans limit the spread and competition of a species. Case in point is the occurrence of finch subspecies in the Galapagos Islands due to geographical isolation. In the islands, Charles Darwin found 14 species of finches thought to originate from one species of finch from South America. The difference in finches is due to different environmental conditions. The difference lies in the size and shape of the beak. This difference has to do with the type of food (Sugianto, 1994).