Distribution Patterns of Living things in Space

Distribution Patterns of Living things in Space
According to Odum (1971) the distribution of animals is influenced by the presence or absence of boundaries (barrier) and individuals who can not be separated (vagility). The limitation in distribution cannot be separated from the minimum law, the law of tolerance and the combination of the two laws.

Organisms in nature are controlled by:
The amount and diversity of materials to meet minimum needs and extreme physical factors.
Limits of tolerance of the organism itself to certain circumstances and other components.

The spread of organisms from one place to another crosses various inhibiting factors. These inhibiting factors control the spread of organisms. The main barrier factors are climate and topography. In addition, reproductive and endemism inhibiting factors control the spread of organisms. As a result of the foregoing on the surface of the earth formed groups of animals and plants that occupy different areas. The area that can be occupied by plants and animals, is related to the opportunity and ability to spread.
The distribution of animals based on their breadth of scope can be divided into geographical, geological and ecological coverage. Geographic coverage, namely the area of distribution includes land and water systems. Geological coverage, which is the state of land and oceans in the past. Ecological coverage is the area of distribution with suitable environmental conditions. The factors that influence the biota are pressure from other individuals who dominate a certain place. Other factors include competition, predators, disease, food shortages, seasonal changes and lack of shelter.
Also Read Articles That May Be Associated: Conditions for Growth of Microorganisms and Their Explanations

Structure and Function of Organisms
Cells are the smallest structural and functional unit of cellular life. There are living things that are not cells for example viruses. Cellular living things can consist of one cell (uni cellular) for example Bacteria and many cells (multi cellular) for example higher plants and animals. Based on the presence or absence of the nuclear membrane, cells are divided into prokaryon cells (do not have a nuclear membrane) and eukaryone cells (have a nuclear membrane). Prokaryone cells, for example, bacteria and blue algae, and eukaryone cells, for example, are higher plant and animal cells. The cells discussed in this paper are only eukaryon cells of multi-cellular organisms, namely plant and animal cells.
Eukaryone cells generally have the same parts, namely: plasma membrane, cytoplasm and their organelles. Cytoplasm is cell fluid that is outside the nucleus, filling the space between the plasma membrane and the cell nucleus. The outermost component of the cytoplasm is the plasma membrane (plasmolemma). The cytoplasm consists of a matrix in which there are inclusions and organelles. Inclusion is a cytoplasmic object in the form of a collection of pigments, lipids, proteins, or carbohydrates, whether or not wrapped in membranes. Organelles are permanent components of cells that are generally covered by membranes, and contain enzymes for metabolism. Examples of organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, golgi body, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus.

Plant Cells
In terms of its parts, plant cells have little difference with
animal cell. The difference is: in plant cells have cell walls,
plasmodesma, chloroplasts and large vacuoles, whereas animal cells do not.
Other parts contained in plant cells are generally the same as cells

a. Cell wall
Plant cell walls are formed from polysaccharide material, cellulose. Function
cell walls namely protect the cytoplasm and cytoplasmic membrane. On several
plant cells which one cell with other cells associated with

b. Plastids
Generally plant cells contain plastids; 4 to 6 microns in diameter
(μ). Plastids are colored or not. Colorless plastids
called leukoplas while the colored one is called chromoplast. Leukoplas yang
function to make starch called amyloplast and which makes fat
called lipoplast. While chromoplast containing chlorophyll is called