Based on the Anatomical Arrangement of Feathers

Based on the Anatomical Arrangement of Feathers
Based on the anatomical arrangement of feathers are divided into:
Filoplumae, hairs like small hairs spread throughout the body. The ends are short and smooth branches. If observed closely it will appear to consist of a slender shaft and several barbulae at the top.
Plumulae, shaped almost the same shape as filoplumae with different details.
Plumae, the perfect feather.
Barbulae, The tip and the lower side of each barbulae have small filaments called barbicels which help to hold the barbules together.

The composition of the plumae consists of:
Shaft, which is the main shaft of the feather.
Calamus, which is the base of the hair shaft.
Rachis, namely continued calamus which is the axis of the feather that is not hollow in it. Rachis is filled with marrow and has tissue.
Vexillum, which is a flag composed of barbae which are lateral branches of the rachis.

Bird feathers
The hole at the base of the calamus is called the inferior umbilicus, while the hole at the end of the calamus is called the superior umbilicus. Bird feathers when hatched are called neossoptile, whereas as adults they are called teleoptile.

According to its location, feather aves can be divided into:
Tectrices, feathers that cover the body.
Rectrices, feathers at the base of the tail, vexilum are symmetrical and function as a rudder.
Remiges, feathers on the wings which are subdivided into:
remixes primaries which are digitally attached to the digital and metacarpally to the metacarpalia.
Secundarient remiges that attach cubital to the radial ulna.
The deepest tertiary remiges appear as secondary continuation of the elbow area.
Parapterum, fur that covers the shoulder area.
Ala spuria, small hairs attached to the thumb (Jasin, 1984).

Fur Color
Fur color is produced by pigment grains, by diffraction and reflection of light by the structure of the feathers or by the pigment and structure of the feathers. The main pigments that cause hair color are melanin and carotenoids.
Carotenoids are often called lipochromes which are not soluble in water but are soluble in methanol, ether or carbon disulfide. Carotenoids are divided into 2, namely zooeritrin (animal red) and zoosantin (animal yellow). Melanin pigment dissolved in acid. Eumelanin grains vary from black to dark brown. Feomelanin is almost colorless to reddish brown.
Round melanin beads near the tips of the outer feathers give Newton's ring effect and cause colorful changes in the feathers. Green, blue and violet colors are not produced by pigments but depend on the structure of the fur.
For example bluebird birds whose feathers are blue but do not contain blue pigments. This color is caused by the yellow pigment which absorbs the entire spectrum of light and is then reflected back. Banana-eating tropical birds have a copper pigment in the form of turacoverdin which is able to produce a dark red color produced by turacin (Sukiya 2003).
One of these banana-eating species is Tauraco corythaix, which has a bright red egg yolk caused by carotenoids and 60% of the red pigment called astasantin.
Although the color of bird feathers is genetic, it can change due to internal and external factors. Caged birds for a long time can also change the color of their feathers. This can be caused by the food.
External factors that can affect discoloration are oxidation and friction / abrasion. Color caused by carotene can fade due to sunlight.
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Internal factors that affect the color of hair are hormones. Bird species have a color dimorphism in sex. Regulation of the hormone estrogen plays a role in many male birds, that is before the beginning of the turn of the feathers. Whereas in females, it is possible to be induced by the feathers of male birds with testosterone regulation.