Understanding Aves (Birds)

Understanding Aves (Birds)
Birds are members of vertebrate animals that have feathers and wings. The oldest bird fossil found in Germany and known as Archeopteryx.
The types of birds are so varied, ranging from tiny hummingbirds to ostriches, which are taller than people. It is estimated that there are around 8,800 - 10,200 bird species worldwide; around 1,500 of them are found in Indonesia. These various bird species are scientifically classified into the Aves class.
Aves is a class of its own in the kingdom animalia, aves or birds have a common characteristic that is feathered and most of them can fly.
Aves class is the only group of animals that have fur, (make no mistake haired mammals, not hairy). This is unique to the group of animals. Following is a brief description of class aves,
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Evolution and Morphology of Aves
Although the bird is warm-blooded, it is closely related to reptiles. Together with its closest relatives, the Crocodylidae family, aka crocodiles, birds form a group of animals called Archosauria.
It is thought that birds developed from a type of reptile in the past, which shortened their front claws and grew special feathers on their bodies. At first, the primitive wing which was the development of the front claw could not yet be used to really fly, and only helped it to be able to float from an altitude to a lower place.

Today's birds have developed in such a way that they are specialized for long distances, with the exception of some primitive species. Its feathers, especially on the wings, have grown wider, lighter, stronger and tightly arranged. These feathers are also arranged so that they are able to resist water, and keep the bird's body warm in the cold.
The bones become lighter because of the air cavities in it, but still strong support the body. His breastbone grew and flattened, as a place to attach strong flying muscles. His teeth disappeared, replaced by a mild beak of horny substance.
All of that makes birds easier and more flying, and able to visit various habitats on earth. Hundreds of species of birds can be found in tropical forests, they inhabit these forests from the coast to the mountain peaks.

Birds are also found in swamps, grasslands, coastal areas, the middle of the ocean, rock caves, urban areas, and polar regions. Each type of adapt to the environment and its main food.
Then known various types of birds with different colors and shapes. There are bright bright colors or jet black, green leaves, dark brown or dotted for disguise, and others.
Some have strong beaks for tearing flesh, scraping hard fruit seeds, pointy to spear fish, flat to filter mud, wide to catch flying insects, or long to suck nectar. Some have sharp claws to grip prey, tree climbing claws, earth digging and litter claws, webbed claws for swimming, strong claws for running and tearing the enemy's stomach.
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Feather Structure
Fur is a characteristic class of aves that is not possessed by other vertebrates. Almost the entire body is covered with feathers, which are phylogenetically derived from the body's epidermal, which in reptiles are similar to scales.
Embryologically the hairs of the aves originate from dermal papules which then stick out covering the epidermis. The base of the feathers curved inward at the edges to form follicles, which are the fur holes in the skin.
The outer epidermal membrane of the horn hair buds and form a smooth wrapper, while the epidermis forms the constituent layer of fur ribs. ).